Scientific References

Mechanism of Action (MOA) References

Molecular Pathways: Trafficking of Metabolic Resources in the Tumor Microenvironment Clinical Cancer Research 2015; 21:4 Iris L. Romero, Abir Mukherjee, Hilary A. Kenny, Lacey M. Litchfield, Ernst Lengyel

Cancer Cell Metabolism: Warburg and Beyond Cell 2008; 134:5 Peggy P. Hsu, David M.Sabatini

Cancer as a Metabolic Disease. Nutr Metab 2010; 7:7 Thomas N Seyfried; Laura M Shelton

Q&A: Cancer: Clues from cell metabolism. Nature 2010; 465:7298 William G. Kaelin Jr., Craig B. Thompson

Understanding the Warburg Effect: The Metabolic Requirements of Cell Proliferation. Science 2009; 324:5930 Matthew G. Vander Heiden, Lewis C. Cantley, Craig B. Thompson

The Warburg Effect: How Does it Benefit Cancer Cells? Trends Biochem Sci 2016; 41:3 Maria V. Liberti, Jason W. Locasale

Metabolic requirements for cancer cell proliferation. Cancer & Metabolism 2016; 4:16 Mark A. Keibler, Thomas M. Wasylenko, Joanne K. Kelleher, Othon Iliopoulos, Matthew G. Vander Heiden, Gregory Stephanopoulos

Metabolism shapes the tumor microenvironment. ScienceDirect 2017; 48:47 Miguel Reina-Campos, Jorge Moscat, Maria Diaz-Meco

Amino Acid Uptake by Cancer Cells

Nonessential amino acid metabolism in breast cancer. Adv Biological Regulation 2016; 62:11 Renee C. Geck, AlexToker

Tumor microenvironment derived exosomes pleiotropically modulate cancer cell metabolism. eLife 2016; 5:e10250 Hongyun Zhao, Lifeng Yang, Joelle Baddour, Abhinav Achreja, Vincent Bernard, Tyler Moss, Juan C Marini, Thavisha Tudawe, Elena G Seviour, F Anthony San Lucas, Hector Alvarez, Sonal Gupta, Sourindra N Maiti, Laurence Cooper, Donna Peehl, Prahlad T Ram, Anirban Maitra, Deepak Nagrath

Amino acid transporters ASCT2 and LAT1 in cancer: Partners in crime? Seminar in Cancer Biology 2005; 15:4 Bryan C. Fuchs, Barrie P. Bode

Amino Acids Rather than Glucose Account for the Majority of Cell Mass in Proliferating Mammalian Cells. Developmental Cell 2016; 36: 5 Aaron M Hosios, Vivian C Hecht , Laura V Danai, Marc O Johnson, Jeffrey C Rathmell, Matthew L Steinhauser, Scott R Manalis, Matthew G Vander Heiden

Targeting amino acid metabolism for cancer therapy. Drug Discovery Today 2017; 22:5 Michael J. Lukey, William P. Katt, Richard A. Cerione

Amino Acids Rather than Glucose Account for the Majority of Cell Mass in Proliferating Mammalian Cells. Developmental Cell 2016; 36: 5

Abstract 5286: Expression of cancer type amino acid transporter LAT1 is a prognosis prediction factor in breast carcinoma: comparison between triple-negative and non-triple-negative types. Cancer Research 2015; 75:15 Masaaki Ichinoe, Tetsuo Mikami, Kiyomi Hana, Nobuyuki Yanagisawa, Hitoshi Endou, Isao Okayasu, Yoshiki Murakumo

Cellular Processing of D-Amino Acids

The ribosome can discriminate the chirality of amino acids within its peptidyl-transferase center. PNAS 2015; 112:19 Michael T. Englandera, Joshua L. Avins, Rachel C. Fleisher, Bo Liu, Philip R. Effraim, Jiangning Wang, Klaus Schulten, Thomas S. Leyh, Ruben L. Gonzalez Jr., Virginia W. Cornish

Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and tumorigenesis: more than housekeeping. Nature Reviews Cancer 2011; 11: 708 Sunghoon Kim, Sungyong You, Daehee Hwang

Kinetics of Ribosome-Catalyzed Polymerization Using Artificial Aminoacyl-tRNA Substrates Clarifies Inefficiencies and Improvements. ACS Chem. Biol., 2015; 10:10 Jinfan Wang, Marek Kwiatkowski, Anthony C. Forster

Human D-Tyr-tRNATyr deacylase contributes to the resistance of the cell to D-amino acids. Biochem. J. 2009; 417:85 Gen Zheng, Wei Liu, Yanhua Gong, Hongbo Yang, Bin Yin, Jing Xi Zhu, Yi Xie, Xiaozhong Peng, Boqin Qiang, Jiangang Yuan


Autophagy promotes immune evasion of pancreatic cancer by degrading MHC-I. Nature 2020 581:100 Keisuke Yamamoto, Anthony Venida, Julian Yano, Douglas E. Biancur, Miwako Kakiuchi, Suprit Gupta, Albert S. W. Sohn, Subhadip Mukhopadhyay, Elaine Y. Lin, Seth J. Parker, Robert S. Banh, Joao A. Paulo, Kwun Wah Wen, Jayanta Debnath, Grace E. Kim, Joseph D. Mancias, Douglas T. Fearon, Rushika M. Perera, Alec C. Kimmelman

Phase II trial of SM-88 in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer: Preliminary results of the first stage. Journal of Clinical Oncology 2019; 37:4 Marcus Smith Noel, Andrea Wang-Gillam, Allyson J. Ocean, Sant P. Chawla, Giuseppe Del Priore, Vincent J. Picozzi

Amino Acid Transporters in Cancer and Their Relevance to “Glutamine Addiction”: Novel Targets for the Design of a New Class of Anticancer Drugs. Cancer Res; 75:9

Potential Role of SM-88 and Immune Modulation

β2 adrenergic-neurotrophin feed-forward loop promotes pancreatic cancer Cancer Cell 2018 33(1):75 Bernhard W. Renz, Ryota Takahashi, Takayuki Tanaka, Marina Macchini, Yoku Hayakawa, Zahra Dantes, H. Carlo Maurer, Xiaowei Chen, Zhengyu Jiang, C. Benedikt Westphalen, Matthias Ilmer, Giovanni Valenti, Sarajo K. Mohanta, Andreas J. R. Habenicht, Moritz Middelhoff, Timothy Chu, Karan Nagar, Yagnesh Tailor, Riccardo Casadei, Mariacristina Di Marco, Axel Kleespies, Richard A. Friedman, Helen Remotti, Maximilian Reichert, Daniel L. Worthley, Jens Neumann, Jens Werner, Alina C. Iuga, Kenneth P. Olive, Timothy C. Wang

What are melanocytes really doing all day long…? : from the ViewPoint of a keratinocyte: Melanocytes – cells with a secret identity and incomparable abilities. Scientific Reports. 2016;6:26643

CD4 T-cell subsets and tumor immunity: the helpful and the not-so-helpful Cancer Immunol Res 2014 2(2):91 Hye-Jung Kim, Harvey Cantor

Circulating Tumor Cells

Circulating tumor cells correlate with patterns of recurrence in patients with hormone-sensitive prostate cancer. Onco Targets Therapy 2017; 10:3811 Giandomenico Roviello, Silvia Paola Corona, Alberto Bonetta, Maria Rosa Cappelletti, Daniele Generali

Circulating tumor cells and their role in prostate cancer. Asian Journal of Andrology 2017 21(1):24 Moritz Maas, Miriam Hegemann, Steffen Rausch, Jens Bedke, Arnulf Stenzl, Tilman Todenhöfer

Improving circulating tumor cells enumeration and characterization to predict outcome in first-line chemotherapy mCRPC patients. Oncotarget 2017 8(33):54708 Luis León-Mateos, Helena Casas, Alicia Abalo, María Vieito, Manuel Abreu, Urbano Anido, Antonio Gómez-Tato, Rafael López, Miguel Abal, Laura Muinelo-Romay